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Our laboratory is equipped with metallographic microscopes and sample preparation machines and equipment for baking, thermal chock and solderability tests. 

Microsection sample preparation                   Diamond polishing of pcba microsection        Temperature chock of bare pcb

Microsection in metallurgic microscope         Stereo microscope inspection of pcb            Slow dry cutting of thick alumina plate

Defect examples
There are numerous variations of the most common defects and thousands of possible root causes, due to the vast number of manufacturing processes required for printed circuit board manufacturing.
What first appear to be printed circuit defects only, can in some cases be problems located in solderjoints and components as well.

3D X-ray reveals voids in a  solderjoint          Microsection of the same solderjoint            Plating void causing outgassing

Stereoscope picture of resin filled and overplated blind vias                Microsection of SMD capacitor solderjoint            

Vertical microsection is the most common       Horisontal microsection                          Microvia with etched copper conjunctions

Horisontal microsection with break out           Horisontal microsection shows smearing  Thin HASL with exposed copper

Innerlayer with resin smearing and breakout  Plating thickness below IPC-requirement Soldermask misregistration around BGA pads
Soldermask peel off exposing copper                Plating void centered at kapton flex layer            Soldermask over impedance diff pair








Dalectro, Mats Knuts väg 44, 784 50 Borlänge, Sweden                                                     Mob: +46 70 795 88 72   Mail: esbjorn@dalectro.se   Web: www.dalectro.se